Federal State Unitary Enterprise "Mayak Production Association"
State Enterprise "Rosatom"
Rus Eng

Ecology

Ensuring radioecological safety in the area of ​​FSUE "PA" Mayak ". From the moment of creation, the enterprise was faced with unprecedentedly complex scientific, technical and production tasks. Essentially, in two or three years a new industry sector was created on the basis of the enterprise, which has no technical analogues. Extremely high rates of development of unique technological equipment, commissioning of new production facilities, lack of scientific knowledge and technological experience in the first years of the company's work generated a number of problems in the field of ecology and environmental protection. The current radiation situation in the FSUE Mayak PA area was formed in the 1950s and 1960s as a result of the inadequacy of the radioactive waste management technologies used - due to routine and emergency discharges of liquid radioactive waste from radiochemical production into the Techa River in 1949-1956, and also due to the explosion of a container with liquid high-level radio-chemical waste in 1957. As a result of the accident, the East Urals radioactive trail was formed. A comprehensive approach to eliminating the negative consequences of the first nuclear project is provided for by the activities of the Federal Target Program "Ensuring Nuclear and Radiation Safety for 2008 and for the Period until 2015" implemented by the Mayak PA. At present, the company has formulated a concept of safe handling of current and accumulated liquid radioactive waste and pulps. The concept envisages the creation of technological schemes in accordance with which all radionuclides are immobilized in solid inert matrices suitable for long-term storage and subsequent burial, and purified aqueous solutions are discharged without restrictions to an open hydrographic network or used in a closed technological cycle of the enterprise. More than half a century, Mayak does not discharge radioactive waste into an open hydrographic network. However, in accordance with the existing technological scheme, a part of the liquid waste generated during the production activity is directed to storage in special industrial water reservoirs isolated from the open hydrographic system. The operation of reservoirs is regulated by special rules and special restrictions established by federal supervisory authorities. The basic conceptual decisions on safe operation, decommissioning and conservation of all special industrial reservoirs of the enterprise are formulated and implemented. Radiation conditions and volumetric activity of radionuclides in water bodies are stable with a tendency to reduce pollution. Solving the problems of "heritage" is impossible without carrying out work on the rehabilitation of contaminated areas. Rehabilitation work is carried out within the framework of environmental programs, including those financed from foreign exchange funds, received from foreign trade operations with irradiated fuel assemblies of foreign research reactors. The expected result of the implementation of these programs will be the achievement of a general reduction in the level of the negative impact of radiation on the environment and health of the population of the Chelyabinsk region, improving the ecological and socio-economic situation in the radiation-contaminated sections of the FSUE Mayak and Chelyabinsk region. In order to ensure the safety of the population living in the area of ​​the location of the enterprise, FSUE "PA" Mayak "carries out work on radiation monitoring in the sanitary protection zone and the monitoring zone. Within the control program, the content of radioactive and chemical substances in the air, water, soil, vegetation and food products is constantly monitored in the Mayak PA zone of influence. Accumulated technogenic effective dose of radiation for different age groups of the population living in the settlements of the monitoring zone, most exposed to radiation exposure, is from 5% to 9% of the allowable dose. Moreover, the radiation impact on the population of current emissions and discharges does not exceed 0.5% of the total dose. In this way: - the radioecological situation in the Mayak PA area satisfies all sanitary requirements, is characterized by stability with a distinct tendency to improve; - the current activity of the enterprise practically does not have a negative impact on the radioecological situation. There are no restrictions for further development of the enterprise.
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