Federal State Unitary Enterprise "Mayak Production Association"
State Enterprise "Rosatom"
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The science

History ЦЗЛ The Central Plant Laboratory (CZL) was established in 1947. There was a need to create its own scientific center, which could become a reliable link between academic institutions, a specialized design bureau and a unique nuclear complex being created. Prominent scientists stood at the origins of the creation of the TsZL: I.V. Kurchatov, A.P. Vinogradov, A.A. Bochvar, A.P. Aleksandrov, B.P. Nikolsky, I.I. Chernyaev, B.A. Nikitin and many, many others, which from the very first days determined the high scientific and technical level of the works. CPL was located on the site of the reactor plant under construction and dealt with purely analytical tasks, primarily related to water treatment. Initially, the department consisted of three departments: the physical, chemical, biological and central service of instrumentation and automation, which in 1951 was separated into an independent unit. Heads of the CPL during this period were P.A. Meshcheryakov, V.P. Shvedov, V.I. Shirokov, D.I. Ilyin. In August 1954, the CPL was reorganized. The biological department was transferred to the Ministry of Health. Of the existing 15 laboratories, five have been created: chemical-technological, physical, radiometric, analytical, a laboratory for the purification of waste solutions. A lot has been done by the staff of the analytical laboratory over the years: methods have been developed for analyzing plutonium, methods for determining uranium, radiochemical methods for determining fragment elements. In 1952 a spectrophotometric method of analysis was introduced into practice. This was the only method at the time that allowed plutonium to be determined irrespective of the isotopic composition and in the presence of other alpha emitters. In subsequent years, the methods of analysis have been significantly improved. During this period, G.A. Sereda, and then I.A. Ternovsky. In 1956, when a radioisotope plant was put into operation, a new laboratory of isotope technology was organized. Its employees developed and implemented original technical solutions that made it possible to master a wide range of produced radioisotope products. In 1956 a laboratory of radioactive aerosols and gas discharges was formed, in 1958 - a laboratory of external dosimetry. In 1967, a corrosion laboratory was created, followed by a decontamination laboratory, which were later merged. In 1968, a laboratory for solidifying radioactive waste was organized. Thus, by the end of the 1960s, structural changes in the CPL had basically ended. In the years 1968-1975. the main focus of the CPL staff was aimed at the reconstruction and commissioning of new production facilities. It was at this time that intensive work was carried out to create extraction schemes for processing uranium blocks for obtaining weapons-grade plutonium and laying the foundations for processing spent fuel from power and transport facilities. The period 1975-1985. - is the commissioning of new production facilities, and, first of all, the launch in 1977 of the RT-1 plant for the recovery of spent fuel elements of nuclear power plants and transport power plants. At present, the only RT-1 plant in our country continues to function successfully, thanks to constant work to improve and optimize all technological processes with the very direct and active participation of the employees of the CPL. At the same time, a large amount of research was carried out to develop and implement highly effective decontamination schemes for the main process equipment and protect it from corrosion. The CPL staff, in close cooperation with the NGO team of RI, took an active part in the commissioning of the high-level waste fractionation plant. There are no analogues of such an installation to date. This is a big step forward in addressing the problem of radioactive waste management. One of the most important successes of the CPL team in recent years is undoubtedly participation in the development and creation of an industrial plant for vitrification of high-level waste. A significant amount of work was done by the Environmental Protection Laboratory. These are hydrogeological and geochemical studies conducted in the area of ​​FSUE "PA Mayak". The work of CPL specialists in these areas is highly professional and rightly received international recognition. Recently, much attention has been paid to modeling possible emergencies in the Mayak PA area, creating models for the behavior of radionuclides in aquatic environments, their migration, and so on. In these years, the heads of the Central Laboratory were: V.V. Morozov, L.P. Sohina, Yu.V. Glagolenko, S.I. Smooth.
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